Most children not learning are in school: UNESCO Institute for Statistics report points to ‘crisis’ in Central and
New data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics show that 617 million children and adolescents worldwide are not
achieving minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics. The figure signals “a learning crisis” according to the
UIS, which could threaten progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The number is the equivalent of six times the population of the Philippines being unable to read or handle basic
mathematics with proficiency.
“The waste of human potential signalled by the new data confirms that getting children into the classroom is only half
the battle,” says Silvia Montoya, Director of the UIS. “Now we must ensure that every child in that classroom is
learning the basic skills they need in reading and mathematics, as a minimum.”
Globally, six out of ten children and adolescents are not learning a minimum in reading and mathematics, according to a
new UIS paper. The total – 617 million – includes more than 387 million children of primary school age and 230 million
adolescents of lower secondary school age. This means that more than one-half – 56% – of all children won’t achieve
minimum proficiency levels by the time they should be completing primary education. The proportion is even higher for
adolescents at 61%.
The newly released paper highlights the depth of the challenges remaining in Asia-Pacific education, particularly in
Central and Southern Asia, which has the second-highest rate of children and adolescents not learning worldwide.
Central and Southern Asia is home to 28% of the world’s children and adolescents of primary school age and yet accounts
for 39% of children and adolescents unable to read proficiently.
Across this region, 81% of children and adolescents – 241 million young people – will not meet minimum proficiency
levels in reading by the time they are of age to complete primary and lower secondary education. This number includes
152 million children of primary school age and almost 89 million adolescents of lower secondary school age. In total,
almost 132 million boys of primary and lower secondary school age (84% of the male population) will not read
proficiently compared to 77% for girls (108 million).
In Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, some 78 million children and adolescents will not read proficiently if current trends
continue. The rates for primary and lower school ages are similar to other regions, at 29% and 34%, respectively.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the single largest number – 202 million – of children and adolescents who are not learning.
The data suggest that the new numbers are rooted in three common problems. First, lack of access, with children who are
out of school having little or no chance to reach a minimum level of proficiency. Second, a failure to retain every
child in school and keep them on track. And third, the issue of education quality and what is happening within the
Most children who are not learning are in school
Two-thirds of the children who are not learning are in school. Of the 387 million primary school-age children unable to
read proficiently, 262 million are in school. There are also about 137 million adolescents of lower secondary school age
who are in classrooms but unable to meet minimum proficiency levels in reading.
The Central Asia and Southern Asia region has the highest percentage (79%) of students in primary who will complete the
last grade of primary education without achieving proficiency. Oceania, meanwhile, has the highest percentage (53%) of
students who will drop out before reaching the last grade of primary education.
“The figures are staggering but they show the way forward,” says Ms Montoya. “We know where these children live and go
to school. They are not hidden or isolated from their governments and communities – they are sitting in classrooms with
their own aspirations and potential. We can reach these kids but not by simply hoping that they stay in school and grasp
About the new data
The new data are the very first to be gathered on progress towards SDG Target 4.1, which requires primary and secondary
education that lead to “relevant and effective learning outcomes”. The new indicator includes children and adolescents
of primary and lower secondary school age who are in school and out.
To develop the estimates, the UIS created a new learning outcomes database that anchors the assessment results of more
than 160 countries/territories between 1995 and 2015. The database uses two different benchmarks in order reflect the
contexts of countries with different income levels. It uses the SACMEQ benchmark (referred to as the basic proficiency
level) for reading and mathematics at the primary level. In addition, the database includes results (presented in the
new paper) using the minimum proficiency level defined by the IEA for PIRLS and TIMSS, which are international
assessments involving middle- and high-income countries. For the secondary level, the benchmark used by PISA were