'Pakistan: One year after the floods-women continue their struggle to rebuild their lives & livelihoods'
By Bushra Khaliq
One year ago during the months of July and August the floodwaters that ravaged the southern parts of Pakistan have long
receded. Though gone are the makeshift tent camps on roadsides but revival of normal life and livelihood still remain a
challenge. Thousands continue a daily struggle to support their families and re-establish livelihoods. As a new monsoon
season is in full swing, last year's trauma and economic pain still linger. While last year's victims struggle to
recover, others now worry that changing world weather patterns will cause renewed flooding.
The devastation caused by the 2010 floods was the worst in Pakistan's history; almost 2,000 deaths, nearly 20 million
displaced or affected and one-fifth of the country went under water. The deluge inflicted unprecedented catastrophic
damage on a country already reeling from the effects of US-led war on terrorism. A year later, the picture is dismal.
Although many flood refugees have returned homes little is known to the world about their miserable conditions and
stories of struggle, to combat the horrific effects on lives and livelihoods. Particularly the women who are the
worst-hit still face multiple challenges after one year. Their work burden is multiplied. While husbands and male
members in poor families, being daily wagers, are struggling to find sources of livelihood, women remain busy in
rebuilding their damaged shelters and dwellings. In small villages and hamlets, one can find these women doing brick
work and plastering their mud and half cemented houses. The brave ones who have done the reconstruction work are out in
the fields to assist their husbands. Rest or respite seems rare thing to them.
Their lost possessions have been replaced at higher costs or not at all. Many marriageable girls who lost their dowries
and valuables are making a fresh start to make it again to get marry. To address the issue a new culture of collective
marriages is gaining ground, which was earlier unknown to these areas. Unfortunately, the phenomenon is giving rise to
another social trend of early girl marriages. Though the custom of girls' early marriages is already present in Pakistan
however, the post flood conditions have given new impetus to this trend. It must be stopped and the only way to tackle
it is to initiate women focused anti-poverty programs in the area. For instance, any scheme to allocate state land and
distribution of livestock among poor women in area will be helpful in addressing the issue.
Another particular problem is women's health, which is generally ignored. Although during the floods, pregnant women had
the opportunity to avail themselves facilities of ante-natal and post natal care, provided through emergency medical
camps, but the moment the relief phase was over, these women were left in conditions, much vulnerable to
reproductive-related diseases. Moreover, women and children are also facing nutritional problems on account of
non-availability of proper healthy diet. Those who lost their livestock are in fact deprived of milk and a permanent
source of livelihood.
The compensation money from the government has been unevenly distributed. Widows and female-headed families faced
discrimination in distribution of Watan cards (relief money) and rehabilitation programs. Despite tall claims the
Government has failed to decrease the rising vulnerability level of poverty among women after one year. While donors
promises of some $600 million in aid have not arrived. As a result squeezing livelihood options coupled with price hikes
are impacting the poor families and women in worst manner.
Last month when I revisited Dera Shahwala, a small village of district Muzaffargarh, one of the worst-hit areas in
southern Punjab, things were not much changed since my first visit soon after floods. Though work on roads, embankments
and water courses/channels is evident, but the issues of provision and restoration of livelihood resources are yet to be
resolved. One of the main sources of livelihood for poor landless women in this area is cotton picking. With loss of the
crop they could not find an alternative. In some cases where land is permanently overtaken by the rough sand there will
be no crop at all, making peasants resource less on one-hand and depriving women cotton pickers of their livelihood on
the other hand.
A flood affectee, here, Myriam Bibi recalled that flood water washed away everything in the house and she lost most of
what was inside and now lives in a newly erected small room while her children were sent away to stay with relatives.
She is rebuilding her house brick by brick with the help of her husband who contributed his free time after his day's
labor. The work is progressing slowly and for the most part the house remains a roofless ruin. "Relatives and friends
help us, but not everyone is so lucky. It is very difficult to rebuild our life," she said. "I don’t see in the coming
two/three years that I will have my house completely rebuilt."
Aysha Bibi, a young mother of five and wife of a farm worker, said floods, however 'natural', were profoundly
discriminatory, where they hit, they impact different people with different degrees of misery. Some people were more
affected than others. We lost our dwelling and the only cow; now we cannot purchase a new one. I cannot provide milk to
my children. Whatever money we had, is spent on reconstruction of our home.
Another resident, Zohra Begum said her 7-member family moved in the immediate aftermath. "We have a small piece of land
where me and my 16-year daughter have to work longer hours to assist my tilling husband. We owe debt to our relatives
and we have to repay it. My two children who used to go school are now supposed to be at home to look after the
siblings. When we first got here there were facilities for us. But they have since been taken away. Now people just come
and talk and talk but they do not give us any help."
False rumors of massive floods are also leaving residents on edge. People have sleepless nights in some areas near
Indus. “It is a mental torture when we are hearing that there might be another monsoon flood,” said 36-year-old Parveen,
who is still struggling to rebuild her damaged home.
About the Author: Bushra Khaliq is a writer from Pakistan. She has been partnering with the Women's International Shared
Experience project in Pakistan and coordinates Women in Struggle for Empowerment as their Executive Director.
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About AHRC: The Asian Human Rights Commission is a regional non-governmental organisation that monitors human rights in
Asia, documents violations and advocates for justice and institutional reform to ensure the protection and promotion of
these rights. The Hong Kong-based group was founded in 1984.