Predictably fraught negotiations appear to have dominated the COP16 climate summit in Cancun, Mexico, as representatives
from 190-odd countries try to come to agreement on how to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
The overall goal of the conference is to progress the hastily-drafted Copenhagen Accord that was put together at the
tail end of last year's conference, and build a consensus among developed and developing countries about how to tackle
Ironically, it was Japan, which hosted the talks that came up with that Protocol, who was in the gun this week
at Cancun for its refusal to commit to legally-binding emission cuts beyond 2012. Rather than have countries sign up to
a second commitment period under Kyoto, the Japanese want to see a much more expansive deal involving all of the
signatories to the Copenhagen Accord.
"[Signatories] to Kyoto only represent 15% of global emissions, but the countries who have signed up to the Copenhagen
accord cause 80% of emissions. We want a single binding treaty," said Japan's deputy minister for global environment
The first commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012, the point by which the developed nations, including New
Zealand, are supposed to have reducing their greenhouse gas emissions an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels. Extending
Kyoto would leave out the two biggest emitters, the US and China who are not currently party to it. But coming up with a
replacement deal involving Accord signatories seems an even more remote prospect than an extended Kyoto...
Three hot years
Meanwhile, the World Meteorological Organisation used Cancun to release its draft annual statement
on the status of global climate.
It reported that 2010 is likely to be among the warmest three years since recordings began in 1850 - the other years
being 1998 and 2005. NIWA climate scientist Dr Jim Renwick said there were "significant real risks of major negative
impacts" in the course of this century as a result of climate change.
"After a small downturn in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions have bounced back in 2010 , continuing the upwards trend seen
in the last decade. The extra carbon dioxide will be in the atmosphere for centuries, and sea levels look set to keep
rising for a thousand years or more. The sooner the global community seriously tackles this issue, the better. Let's
hope Cancun delivers a positive outcome."