Sydney, 5 August, 2021: A new species of ‘butterfly bobtail’ squid, Iridoteuthis merlini, has been discovered by Dr Mandy Reid, Manager of the Malacology collection, Australian Museum Research Institute.
Named in honour of longstanding Australian Museum affiliate and UNSW Sydney Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Professor
Merlin Crossley, the research was published in the journal Zootaxa
on Wednesday 28 July.
Belonging to the genus Iridoteuthis, the author of the research, Dr Reid discovered the new species, now called Iridoteuthis merlini (as well as a second new species, Iridoteuthis lophia) among the collections of the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa and the National Institute of Water and
Atmospheric Research, Wellington.
Iridoteuthis merlini was found when studying some Stoloteuthis maoria type specimens that were described in New Zealand in 1959 (‘types’ are those used to define a species when they are first named). She found that the type specimens were muddled,
and actually comprised not only two species, but also represented two different genera: Iridoteuthis and Stoloteuthis.
The important ‘type specimens’ included two males and two female squids. “The males are the ‘real’ Stoloteuthis maoria, and the females belonged to an undescribed species, last week formally described and named Iridoteuthis merlini,” Reid said.
Commenting on their luminous quality, Dr Reid said the squid really do sparkle in every sense of the word.
“Sometimes referred to as ‘butterfly bobtail squid’ because of the way they swim by flapping their round fins, Iridoteuthis have silvery sides, colourful shields on their underside and have huge round eyes that take up a large proportion of the
sides of their heads,” Reid explained.
“They store phosphorescent bacteria in a special ‘light organ’, and the light intensity can be switched on and off by
the squid. They can adjust the light by depriving the resident bacteria of oxygen or giving them an extra ‘burst’ to
increase the glow. At times of trouble they can squirt jets of these luminescent bacteria into the water to surprise
Dr Reid named the species in honour of Professor Merlin Crossley, UNSW Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), in recognition
of his highly valued contribution on the Trust of the Australian Museum from 2012–2021, and as previous Chair of the
Science Advisory Board.
“Professor Crossley is an eminent researcher in the fields of genetics and microbiology and has played a pivotal role in
supporting and promoting science at the museum, and beyond. Through his work and support, my colleagues and I have
enjoyed many wonderful life experiences both professionally and personally. I knew that Professor Crossley had a soft
spot for this group of intelligent animals, so the name seemed like a good fit,” Reid said.
Professor Crossley was particularly delighted by being honoured with the naming of a new species of butterfly bobtail
“This is a unique honour. This group of animals are the bright sparks of the sea, and uniquely intelligent,” Professor
“I loved my time on the governing body of the Australian Museum and was repeatedly impressed by the world class science
they do, its quality and relevance. I also liked the way the community worked together and connected with other
institutions and the public at large. There is a really important human dynamic at the museum and the kindness shown is
reflected in the careful name choice of a bright new squid,” Professor Crossley added.
Iridoteuthis merlini is found in the open ocean off New Zealand as well as eastern and southeastern Australia. Testament to the unique and
biodiverse marine fauna in our region, the two new species Iridoteuthis merlini and Iridoteuthis lophia are two of a total of only three species that are formally known to belong to this small group of enigmatic cephalopods.
These discoveries underpin the importance of museum collections and the endless surprises they contain. This spectacular
new species of Butterfly Bobtail Squid demonstrates the significance of international scientific collaboration, and the
need for rigorous taxonomic research to learn more about the fascinating creatures that we share the planet with.About the Australian Museum
The Australian Museum (AM) was founded in 1827 and is the nation’s first museum. It is internationally recognised as a
natural science and culture institution focused on Australia and the Pacific. The AM’s mission is to ignite wonder,
inspire debate and drive change. The AM’s vision is to be a leading voice for the richness of life, the Earth and
culture in Australia and the Pacific. The AM commits to transforming the conversation around climate change, the
environment and wildlife conservation; to being a strong advocate for First Nations cultures; and to continuing to
develop world-leading science, collections, exhibitions and education programs. With more than 21.9 million objects and
specimens and the Australian Museum Research Institute (AMRI), the AM is not only a dynamic source of reliable
scientific information on some of the most pressing environmental and social challenges facing our region, but also an
important site of cultural exchange and learning.