6 August 2019
Identification of kiwifruit sex determining genes validates plant evolutionary theory
An international research team has discovered a sex determining gene in kiwifruit that could potentially lead to the
breeding of hermaphrodite varieties. The study has also validated the “two-mutation model” in sex acquisition of plants
proposed 40 years ago.
Plant & Food Research scientists and their research partners in Japan and the US have identified a gene called Friendly Boy
(FrBy), which is necessary for pollen production and is found naturally in Y chromosomes of male kiwifruit plants. It is
the second sex-determinant discovered in kiwifruit after Shy Girl (SyGI), which suppresses fruit production in male
“We overexpressed the FrBy gene identified by our Japanese research partner in rapid-flowering kiwifruit plants,” Plant & Food Research scientist Dr Sarah Pilkington says. “We found that expression of FrBy in female kiwifruit resulted in
hermaphrodite plants, which means the female plants could both produce and receive pollen, making them capable of
The study supports the “two-mutation model” of sex evolution in plants proposed by Deborah and Brian Charlesworth in
1978. It suggests that at least two gene mutations, one affecting ovule (female) production and one affecting pollen
(male) production, are necessary to transform a hermaphrodite species into one with separate sexes.
The results of this study pave the way for the potential development of hermaphrodite kiwifruit. Self-fertile kiwifruit
cultivars could remove the current need for pollen supplementation, saving land and labour costs.
The paper “Two Y chromosome-encoded genes determine sex in kiwifruit” is published in the top plant journal Nature