GENEVA (22 January 2021) – A UN expert* deplored today the arrest and prolonged pre-trial detention of human rights
defenders and bloggers, and their accusation of being members of a terrorist organisation, continuing Egypt’s practice
to intimidate and criminalise human rights defenders, journalists and their families.
“I am extremely concerned by the seemingly unrelenting efforts of the Egyptian authorities to silence dissent and shrink
civic space in the country, despite repeated calls from UN mechanisms and the international community,” said Mary
Lawlor, UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders.
She urged the immediate release of all detained rights defenders, journalists, civil society actors and their family
members. “The use of prolonged pre-trial detention and misuse of anti-terrorism and national security laws to
criminalise the work of civil society actors must end.”
The Special Rapporteur said she was disturbed by the detention since 2018 of human rights defender and blogger Mohamed
Ibrahim Radwan, also known as ‘Mohamed Oxygen’, on charges of “membership of a terrorist organisation” and “misuse of
social media” in retaliation for his posts and videos reporting on human rights issues. He was granted conditional
release by the Cairo Criminal Court in November last year but was attached to a new case on charges of joining a
terrorist organisation and kept in detention. He remains in pre-trial detention in Al-Aqrab Prison, south of Cairo.
Lawlor said that human rights defenders such as researcher and post-graduate student Patrick Zaki, who was arrested in
February last year, have endured repeated renewals of detention without trial. “Pre-trial detention should only be used
as the exception to the rule, rather than the default approach,” said Lawlor.
“Not only are these human rights defenders, journalists and other civil society actors unduly targeted for their
legitimate and peaceful defence of human rights and fundamental freedoms, they are wrongfully accused of belonging to
terrorist organisations and portrayed as a national security threat under vague legal provisions,” the Special
“These individuals should never have been targeted for their human rights activities in the first place, and so I repeat
calls for the Egyptian authorities to immediately and unconditionally release all detained human rights defenders,
journalists, civil society actors and their family members,” Lawlor said. “This is an issue which I and a number of UN
experts have previously communicated our concern about to the Egyptian authorities.”
*Ms Mary Lawlor, (Ireland) is the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders
. She is currently an Adjunct Professor of Business and Human Rights in Trinity College Dublin. She was the founder of
Front Line Defenders - the International Foundation for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders. As Executive Director
from 2001-2016, she represented Front Line Defenders and had a key role in its development. Ms. Lawlor was the Director
of the Irish Section of Amnesty International from 1988 to 2000, became a Board member in 1975 and was elected Chair
from 1983 to 1987.