Cablegate: 2003 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

Published: Fri 2 Jan 2004 02:02 PM
This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.
E.O. 12958: N/A
REF: STATE 324347
I. Summary
1. The Netherlands continues to be a significant transit
point for drugs entering Europe (especially cocaine), an
important producer and exporter of synthetic drugs
(particularly Ecstasy and amphetamines), and an important
consumer of most illicit drugs. U.S. law enforcement
information indicates that the Netherlands still is by far
the most significant source country for Ecstasy in the U.S.
The current Dutch center-right coalition has made measurable
progress in implementing the five-year strategy (2002-2006)
against production, trade and consumption of synthetic drugs
announced in May 2001. For example, there has been a
significant increase in Dutch seizures of Ecstasy pills from
3.6 million in 2001 to six million in 2002 (last year for
statistics). In July 2003, the National Criminal
Investigation Department (Nationale Recherche) was set up
with the key objective of enhancing the efficiency and
effectiveness of criminal investigations and international
joint efforts against narcotics trafficking. Operational
cooperation between U.S. and Dutch law enforcement agencies
is excellent, despite some differences in approach and
tactics. Dutch popular attitudes toward soft drugs remain
tolerant to the point of indifference. The Dutch government
and public view domestic drug use as a public health issue
first and a law enforcement issue second. End summary.
II. Status of Country
2. The central geographical position of the Netherlands,
with its modern transportation and communications
infrastructure, the world's busiest container port in
Rotterdam and one of Europe's busiest airports, makes the
country an attractive operational area for international drug
traffickers and money launderers. Production of
amphetamines, Ecstasy and other synthetic drugs, and
marijuana is significant. The Netherlands also has a large
chemical sector, making it a convenient location for
criminals to obtain or produce precursor chemicals used to
manufacture illicit drugs.
III. Country actions against drugs in 2003
Policy Initiatives
3. Major Dutch government policy initiatives in 2003
New Government Stricter on Drugs
4. The current Dutch center-right coalition government,
formed in May 2003, announced a tougher approach to the
production of and trafficking in hard drugs, Ecstasy in
particular. The coalition accord of May 16, 2003, outlining
the government's intentions for the next four years, stated
that airlines will be made responsible for carrying out
controls so that drug smugglers can no longer make use of
their flights. If airlines fail to do so, sanctions will be
imposed, including withdrawal of landing rights. It also
announced that the heroin distribution program, under which
heroin is prescribed under strict medical guidance to serious
drug addicts, for whom all other treatment options have
failed, will be continued at the current level, meaning that
the program will not be expanded for the time being, as had
been advocated. In addition, the new Cabinet announced
consultations with local authorities about closure of soft
drug coffeeshops near schools and in border regions.
Justice Minister Donner is also investigating the possibility
of banning foreigners from coffeeshops, in order to fight
drug tourism.
5. In the summer of 2003, the national criminal
investigation department (Nationale Recherche or NR) became
operational. The new department combines the current five
core police teams, the national criminal investigation team,
the Unit Synthetic Drugs (USD), the Trafficking in People
Unit, and the five Ecstasy teams. The NR, which is part of
the National Police Services (KLPD) and which comes under the
authority of the National Public Prosecutors' Office, gives
top priority to international cooperation in the fight
against organized crime, in particular the production of and
trafficking in synthetic drugs.
Cocaine Couriers
6. Despite fierce political opposition, the Dutch Parliament
approved Justice Minister Donner's plan to close down
Schiphol airport to cocaine smuggling from the Caribbean on
December 10, 2003. An estimated 20,000-40,000 kilos of
cocaine, destined primarily for the European market, are
smuggled annually through Schiphol (Dutch cocaine use is
estimated at 4,000-8,000 kilos annually - in 2001 and 2002,
more than 3,500 drug couriers were arrested and some 10,000
kilos of cocaine seized at the airport). Donner hopes to
achieve 100% interdiction of the drugs coming into Schiphol
on targeted high-risk flights from the Netherlands
Antilles, Aruba and Suriname. He told the Second Chamber of
Parliament on December 3, 2003, that, as a result of the 100%
controls of passengers, luggage, freight and aircraft, the
number of drug couriers is expected to rise significantly,
fearing inadequate law enforcement capacity to handle the
number of arrests. According to Donner, this justifies a
temporary adjustment in prosecution policy - a certain
category of drug couriers will not be prosecuted. He
explained that criteria would be drawn up, which will not be
made public in the interest of criminal procedures. However,
couriers failing to meet these criteria will be prosecuted.
(Unconfirmed reports suggested that only smugglers caught
with 3 kilos or more are prosecuted.) Donner stated that
summoning drug couriers in court at a later date would not be
a solution, because this would also put a heavy burden on the
Dutch judiciary. He did pledge the Chamber an early
assessment of his proposals. Relevant data of drug couriers
will be made available to airlines, which will be responsible
for taking special measures against these persons, including
an indefinite flight ban. Despite opposition within Donner's
own Christian-Democratic Party (CDA), the Second Chamber
adopted his proposals on December 10, 2003.
7. The plan went into effect on December 11, and, during the
first five days, 120 couriers were arrested on flights from
the Netherlands Antilles, of whom 31 were released without a
summons after drugs were recovered. The remaining 89 cases
are being investigated or prosecuted. In addition, 104
potential passengers were turned away by the airlines and 375
passengers did not turn up. About 120 kilos of drugs were
seized. During routine checks on flights from Suriname, 22
couriers were arrested, one of whom carried 14.5 kilos of
Ecstasy Offensive
8. In July 2003, Justice Minister Donner published a
progress report on the implementation of the five-year (2002-
2006) action plan against production, trade, and consumption
of synthetic drugs. According to the report, six million
Ecstasy pills were seized in 2002 compared to 3.6 million in
2001, and the number of dismantled Ecstasy laboratories rose
to 43 in 2002 from 35 in 2001. The increase in Ecstasy
seizures was attributed to intensified controls at Schiphol
airport by the special team of Dutch customs and the military
police (more than one million pills seized there in 2002),
the introduction of five special police Ecstasy teams (total
manpower: 90), and increased staffing at the Fiscal
Intelligence and Investigation Service-Economic Control
Service (FIOD-ECD). The progress report shows that the
measures announced in the action plan are well underway.
According to the 2002 annual report of the Unit Synthetic
Drugs (USD), the five XTC teams conducted 36 investigations
in 2002 and arrested some 76 suspects.
9. The chemical precursor PPK is the principal precursor
used by Dutch Ecstasy laboratories. It comes mainly by sea
from China through Rotterdam port. Due to human rights
concerns, the Dutch government shares only limited
information of an administrative nature with China. A
Memorandum of Understanding formalizing this information-
sharing arrangement was submitted to the Chinese in October
2003. No response has yet been received. The MOU states
that China will keep the Netherlands informed regarding the
progress and results of investigations that have been
instigated on the basis of this administrative information.
In addition to working directly with the Chinese, the
Netherlands is an active participant in the INCB/PRISM
project's taskforce
10. According to the fourth survey on coffeeshops in the
Netherlands, published in October 2003, there were 782
officially tolerated coffeeshops at the end of 2002, which is
a 3 percent drop over 2001, principally in the four major
cities. About 73 percent of Dutch municipalities do not
tolerate any shops at all, according to the study. In early
2004, Justice Minister Donner, whose CDA party has advocated
closing of coffeeshops, is expected to publish a Cannabis
Policy Paper, which should discourage cannabis use.
11. The 2002 National Drug Monitor shows that the number of
recent (last-month) cannabis users in the Dutch population
over the period 1997-2001 rose from some 326,000 to 408,000,
or 3 percent of the Dutch population of 12 years and older
(of a total population of 16 million). The largest increase
is reported among young people aged 20-24, while use among
the 12-15 year-old age group remained limited and hardly
changed from 1997. Life-time prevalence (ever-use) of
cannabis among the population of 12 years and older rose from
15.6 percent in 1997 to 17 percent in 2001. The average age
of recent cannabis users is 28 years.
12. On November 27, 2003, the Netherlands agreed on an EU
framework decision on harmonized sentencing of drug
traffickers. Under the agreement, the maximum penalty for
possessing a small quantity of cannabis will be raised from
one month to one year imprisonment. The agreement, if
ratified by Dutch parliament, would allow the Netherlands to
maintain its coffeeshops.
Medicinal Cannabis
13. Since March 17, 2003, doctors are allowed to prescribe
their patients medicinal cannabis. Two suitable government-
controlled cannabis growers have been contracted, and, as of
September 2003, the drug can be bought from pharmacies. The
Health Ministry's Bureau for Medicinal Cannabis controls
quality and organizes the distribution. According to the
Health Ministry, cannabis may have a favorable effect on
seriously ill patients but the government recognizes the
therapeutic effects of medicinal cannabis have not been
proved and research continues.
Heroin Experiment
14. The Cabinet decided in December 2003 not to expand the
so-called heroin experiment, under which heroin is medically
prescribed to a limited group of heroin users for whom all
other forms of treatment have failed. The current capacity
for 300 participating addicts will be continued with a Spring
2004 decision on a possible expansion.
15. A major accomplishment was the establishment of the
national criminal investigation department (Nationale
Recherche or NR) in July 2003. The NR with 800 employees
will hopefully end the fragmented investigation capacity of
the Dutch enforcement organization. In addition,
considerable progress has been made in implementing the five-
year strategy against synthetic drugs (see above). The
government has also stepped up controls on chemical
precursors, sought an MOU on chemical precursors with the
Chinese, and taken additional measures to fight cocaine
trafficking through Schiphol.
Law Enforcement Efforts
16. Overall the Health Ministry coordinates drug policy,
while the Ministry of Justice is responsible for law
enforcement. Matters relating to local government and the
police are the responsibility of the Ministry of Interior. At
the municipal level, policy is coordinated in tripartite
consultations between the mayor, the chief public prosecutor
and the police.
17. The Dutch Opium Act punishes possession, commercial
distribution, production, import, and export of all illicit
drugs. Drug use, however, is not an offense. The act
distinguishes between hard drugs that have unacceptable
risks (e.g. heroin, cocaine, Ecstasy), and soft drugs
(cannabis products). Trafficking in hard drugs is
prosecuted vigorously and their dealers are subject to a
prison sentence of 12 years. When this takes place on an
organized scale, another one-third of the sentence is added
(16 years). Sales of small amounts (under five grams) of
cannabis products are tolerated (i.e., not prosecuted, even
though technically illegal) in coffeeshops operating under
regulated conditions (no minors on premises, no alcohol
sales, no hard drug sales, no advertising, and no public
nuisance). One of the aims of this controversial policy is
to separate the markets for soft and hard drugs so that soft
drug users are less likely to come into contact with hard
drugs. Another goal - we believe less successful - has been
to separate revenue streams so that hard drug dealers do
not use soft drug dealing as a source of capital.
18. Dutch police inter-regional core (IRT Kern) teams and
National Prosecutors give high priority to combating drug
trafficking. DEA agents stationed with Embassy The Hague
have close contacts with their counterparts in the
Netherlands. On a global scale, the DEA in The Hague have a
close relationship with its foreign liaison counterparts on
combating drug trafficking. Beginning in FY 2002, the Dutch
assigned Dutch liaison agents to Miami, Florida and
Washington, D.C. to improve coordination with U.S. law
enforcement agencies. During September 2003, the Dutch Unit
Synthetic Drugs held its first Syndec conference, attended by
representatives from the United States, Colombia and the Far
East, and from throughout Europe. During April and July
2003, the Dutch hosted bilateral talks on law enforcement
cooperation, extradition, and the United States judicial
system with local prosecutors, judges and police and
representatives from all the major U.S. law enforcement
authorities, and representatives from the DoJ.
19. Coordination of foreign law enforcement information
requests would benefit from greater centralization. The
internationalization of the synthetic drug problem has led to
increases in U.S. and other countries' requests for
information from Dutch law enforcement. All foreign requests
are sent to the regional intelligence department, previous
called DIN (Dienst Internationale Netwerk). Cooperation
regarding the turn around time for requests and obtaining
teams to work U.S. cases has been excellent. Problems remain
with the exchange of intelligence on major organizations,
with or without a U.S. nexus. In addition, it is often
difficult for foreign authorities to find a police region
with clear-cut responsibility for handling a specific case
because precursor chemicals have their origins outside of
Dutch territory and numerous separate production sites are
scattered throughout the Netherlands. The formation of the
National Criminal Investigation Department (Nationale
Recherche, also known as the National Crime Squad) in
Driebergen (in July 2003) should eliminate the need for
foreign liaison officers to shop around to obtain a team to
work a U.S. case. The new department's policies and
procedures will not be implemented until January 2004. During
November 2003, a meeting was held between U.S. law
enforcement officials and the Nationale Recherche/National
Crime Squad to ascertain any new procedures. It appears few
procedures will change because foreign offices and liaison
officers will still have to go through DIN. The Dutch
officials also indicated they would try to work 200 cases a
year, with only 5% to 10% dedicated to foreign requests,
meaning they will only assist in approximately 20 cases for
all the foreign offices having status in the Netherlands.
20. The Dutch government is committed to fighting national
and international corruption. It does not encourage or
facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or
psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the
laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. No
senior official of the Dutch government engages in,
encourages, or facilitates the illicit production or
distribution of such drugs or substances, or the laundering
of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. Press reports of
low-level law enforcement corruption appear from time to time
but the problem is not believed to be widespread. At year's
end, the Royal Marechaussee (military police with
responsibility for Schiphol Airport and border control
generally) admitted it had been investigating credible
allegations of drug trafficking and corruption involving
ground service personnel, Dutch Customs and military police
at Schiphol. In order to remove any conflict of interest,
the investigation has been turned over to Ministry of Defense
Agreements and Treaties
21. The Netherlands is party to the 1988 UN convention, the
1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1961
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the 1972 Protocol
amending the Single Convention. It has ratified the 1990
Strasbourg convention on money laundering and confiscation.
The U.S. and the Netherlands have agreements on extradition,
mutual legal assistance, and asset sharing. The Netherlands
has enacted legislation on money laundering and controls on
chemical precursors. The Netherlands is a member of the UN
Commission on Narcotics Drugs and the major donors group of
the UNDCP. It participates in the Financial Action Task
Force (FATF) and the Caribbean Action Task Force (CATF). The
Netherlands is a leading member of the Dublin Group and
chairs its Central European regional group. It is member of
the daily management of the Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement
Council (CCLEC). It is actively implementing the Schengen
agreement, the Benelux agreement on extradition, and the
European convention on extradition and mutual assistance.
The Dutch also participate in the Pompidou group. Dutch
police, justice and customs officials have close contacts
with their colleagues in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK.
The Netherlands has police liaison officers in the U.S.,
Thailand, Pakistan, Venezuela, Colombia, France, the
Netherlands Antilles, Turkey, Poland and Spain. Europol is
headquartered in The Hague and EUROJUST will also move from
Paris to The Hague.
Cultivation and Production
22. About 75 percent of the Dutch cannabis market is Dutch-
grown marijuana (Nederwiet), although indoor cultivation of
hemp is banned, even for agricultural purposes. Amsterdam
University researchers estimate that the Netherlands has at
least 100,000 illegal home growers of hashish and marijuana,
with the number increasing. Together they produce more than
100,000 kilos of soft drugs and are the largest suppliers of
coffeeshops, according to the study. The estimates are based
on a significant rise in the number of lawsuits and police
raids. Although the Dutch government has given top priority
to the investigation and prosecution of large-scale
commercial cultivation of Nederwiet, tolerated coffeeshops
appear to create the demand for large-scale commercial
23. The Netherlands remains one of the world's largest
producers of synthetic drugs. In 2002, the USD registered a
total of 740 seizures of synthetic drugs around the world, of
which 205 (some 30 percent) took place in the Netherlands.
Of the remaining seizures registered in 35 other countries,
some 70 percent could be related to Dutch criminal
organizations. Of the 205 Dutch seizures, 141 involved
synthetic drugs that were intended to be exported. The
seizures of drugs around the world that could be related to
the Netherlands involved some 24.6 million MDMA tablets and
over 910 kilos of MDMA power. Of this total, the largest
amount was seized in the Netherlands (6.1 million pills),
Belgium (more than 5 million pills), followed by Germany
(almost 3 million), the U.S. (2.5 million), France (2
million) and the UK (1.8 million). The USD reported lower
amphetamine seizures in 2002 than in 2001, but the quantity
of Dutch-related amphetamine seized in other countries went
up. In 2002, the USD dismantled 43 production sites for
synthetic drugs, of which 26 were situated in residential
areas. Most production sites were MDMA laboratories.
According to the USD, the production of synthetic drugs in
residential areas is an alarming development. The FIOD-ECD,
which is primarily responsible for intercepting chemical
precursors, seized some 318 liters and 9,255 kilos of PMK and
1,228 liters of BMK in 2002.
Drug Flow/Transit
24. The Dutch government has stepped up border controls to
combat the flow of drugs. Confronted with an explosive
growth in the number of drug couriers at Schiphol, the
government announced in January 2002 a special counter-
narcotics offensive - the Schiphol Action Plan. Cocaine
seizures at Schiphol airport rose from 3,341 kilos in 2001 to
6,233 kilos in 2002. This did not stop the cocaine flow, so
the government initiated in December 2003 steps to interdict
100% of the cocaine coming in to Schiphol from certain
Caribbean flights (see paras 6-7). The government has also
expanded the number of container scanners in the port of
Rotterdam and at Schiphol airport. Controls of highways and
international trains connecting the Netherlands to
neighboring countries were also intensified.
Money Laundering
25. The Netherlands participates in the financial action
task force (FATF). Forty separate anti-money laundering
measures recommended by FATF have been integrated in the
financial sector. Additionally, legislation making money
laundering a separate, stand-alone, offense became effective
in 2002. See septel.
Asset Seizures
26. The Dutch have signed the Strasbourg Convention and have
drawn up national legislation to enable courts to confiscate
the proceeds of drug-related crime. The U.S. and the
Netherlands have an asset seizure agreement.
--------------------------------------------- -
Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty
--------------------------------------------- -
27. The U.S. and the Netherlands have fully operational
extradition and mutual legal assistance agreements. Some
defense attorneys, however, have argued successfully to
judges that U.S. judicial protections are inadequate, slowing
the pace of extradition in cases involving Ecstasy dealers.
Using differences in our legal systems and misconceptions
about the American criminal justice system, they criticize
(1) the U.S. plea bargaining system which they argue puts
pressure on innocent suspects to confess; and (2) delays in
repatriation to the Netherlands of previously extradited
Dutch citizens who were then convicted in the U.S. and are
now seeking to serve their terms in the Netherlands.
Demand Reduction
28. The Netherlands has a wide variety of demand-reduction
and harm-reduction programs, reaching about 80 percent of the
country's 26,000-30,000 opiate addicts. The number of opiate
addicts is low compared to other EU countries (2.6 per 1,000
inhabitants); the number has stabilized over the past few
years, their average age has risen to 40, and the number of
overdose deaths related to opiates has stabilized at between
30 and 50 per year. Needle supply and exchange programs have
kept the incidence of HIV infection among intravenous drug
users relatively low. Of the addicts known to the addiction
care organizations, 75 percent regularly use methadone.
29. According to the 2002 National Drug Monitor, the out-
patient treatment centers registered some 26,605 drug users
seeking treatment for their addiction in 2000, compared to
26,333. The number of cannabis and opiate addicts seeking
treatment has stabilized at 3,443 and almost 15,544,
respectively. Statistics from drug treatment services show a
sharp increase in the number of people seeking help for
cocaine problems (representing an increase of 49 percent
between 1994 and 2000). Two out of three people seeking help
for cocaine problems are crack cocaine users. The average
age of drug clients was 39 years. Total costs of drug
treatment programs are put at 100 million dollars.
30. Although more recent data about drug use are
unavailable, drug experts have noted a significant drop in
Ecstasy use, while cocaine use appears to be going up.
Drug use among the general population of 12 years and older,
1997 and 2001 (life-time (ever) use and last-month use)
Life-time use Last-month use
1997 2001 1997 2001
Cannabis 15.6 17.0 2.5 3.0
Cocaine 2.1 2.9 0.2 0.4
Amphetamine 1.9 2.6 0.1 0.2
Ecstasy 1.9 2.9 0.3 0.5
Hallucinogens 1.8 1.3 0.0 0.0
-of which LSD 1.2 1.0 -- --
Mushrooms 1.6 2.6 0.1 0.1
Heroin 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.1
(Source: National Prevalence Survey, Center for Drug Research
(Cedro), University of Amsterdam)
31. Drug prevention programs are organized through a network
of local, regional and national institutions. Schools are
targeted in efforts to discourage drug use, while national
campaigns are conducted in the mass media to reach the
broader public. The Netherlands requires school instruction
on the dangers of alcohol and drugs as part of the health
education curriculum. The Netherlands Institute of Mental
Health and Addiction (the Trimbos Institute) has developed a
project in the field of alcohol and drugs in the context of
teaching healthy living in classrooms. About 75 percent of
Dutch secondary schools participate in the project. In
October 2002, the Health Ministry and the Trimbos Institute
launched the new mass media campaign Drugs, Don't Kid
Yourself, providing drug information to parents, teachers
and students. The 24-hour national Drug Info Line of the
Trimbos Institute has become very popular.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives
Bilateral Cooperation
32. Despite excellent operational cooperation between U.S.
and Dutch law enforcement agencies, concern remains over the
Netherlands' role as the key source country for MDMA/Ecstasy
entering the U.S. Embassy The Hague continues to make the
fight against the Ecstasy threat one of its highest
priorities. Although we agree on the goal, we differ over
which law enforcement methodology will be most effective in
achieving it. The Dutch continue to resist use of controlled
deliveries and criminal infiltrants in their investigations
of drug traffickers. They are also reluctant to admit the
involvement of large, international drug organizations in the
local drug trade and do not use their asset forfeiture rules
often. The second bilateral law enforcement talks, held in
The Hague in March 2003, resulted in an Agreed Steps list
of action to enhance law enforcement cooperation in fighting
drug trafficking.
33. The U.S. and the Netherlands cooperate closely on law
enforcement activities throughout the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. The USG is also working with the Kingdom to
assist Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles in countering
narcotics trafficking. The 10-year FOL agreement between the
U.S. and the Kingdom for the establishment of forward
operating locations on Aruba and Curacao became effective in
October 2001.
34. In 1999, the Dutch Organization for Health Research and
Development (ZonMw) has a cooperation agreement with NIDA on
joint addiction research. Since then, the two have organized
various workshops and have financed joint research projects
on addiction. The last bilateral workshop was held in the
Netherlands in September 2003.
The Road Ahead
35. We expect U.S.-Dutch bilateral law enforcement
cooperation to intensify. The Dutch government's Ecstasy
Action Plan should further counter narcotics efforts. The
Dutch synthetic drug unit will also continue to make concrete
progress. The establishment of a central police
investigative body in the Spring of 2003 will certainly boost
cooperation on international investigations, including
Ecstasy cases.
V. Statistics
36. Drug Seizures 2001 2002
------------------ ---- ----
Heroin (kilos) 739 1,122
Cocaine (kilos) 8,389 7,968
Cannabis resin (kilos) 10,972 32,717
Herbal cannabis (kilos) 22,447 9,958
Ecstasy (tablets) 3,684,505 6,878,167
Amphetamine (kilos) 579 481
LSD (doses) 28,731 355
Source: Europol data
Chemical Control
37. (a) The Netherlands is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention and 1990 European Union Regulations. Trade in
precursors is governed by the 1995 Act to Prevent Abuse of
Chemical Substances (WVMC). The law seeks to prevent the
disappearance of legal chemicals into the illegal circuit.
Violations of the law can lead to prison sentences (maximum
of six years), fines (up to 50,000 dollars), or asset
seizures. The Fiscal Information and Investigation Service
(FIOD) and the Economic Control Service (ECD) oversee
implementation of the law.
38. The USD and the Public Prosecutor's Office have
strengthened cooperation with countries playing an important
role in Ecstasy production, in particular with countries
exporting chemical precursors. The government has decided to
provide the INCB as well as the exporting country (mostly
China) with administrative data about precursor seizures.
However, in view of the human rights situation, the
Netherlands will not enter into a mutual legal assistance
treaty with China.
39. (b) The Dutch continue to work closely with the U.S. on
precursor chemical controls and investigations. This
cooperation includes formal and informal agreements on the
exchange of intelligence.
40. (c) Yes, the Netherlands is a party to agreements on a
method of maintaining records of transactions of an
established list of precursor and essential chemicals.
41. (d) The Netherlands established such procedures in 1994.
42. (e) The Netherlands has efficient national chemical
control legislation in place which imposes record keeping and
reporting requirements for listed chemicals.
43. (f) No, the Netherlands doesn't encourage illicit
production of controlled substances or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions.
44. (g) No.
Dublin Group
45. The Netherlands is a member of the Dublin Group and
chairs its Central European (Poland, Hungary, the Czech
Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia) regional Group.
46. The Netherlands is a member of the major donors group of
the UNDCP.
47. The Netherlands does not have a fixed counternarcotics
budget. The funds are disbursed through several distinct
programs and organs of the government.
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