The significant effort to develop and run New Zealand’s own Earth System Model (NZESM), within the Deep South Challenge: Changing with our Climate, is leading to more realistic climate simulations for New Zealand.
The major step forward is described in a paper recently published in the Journal of Advances in Earth System Modelling, co-authored by Erik Behrens and Olaf Morgenstern (both of NIWA).
Lead author and ocean modeller Erik Behrens explains how the oceans around New Zealand have to-date been poorly
represented in global climate models. “Our unique oceanic currents and conditions have a major impact on the climate in
our region,” he says, “and unless we capture these processes well in our climate models, we can’t fully trust our future
“The key here is to resolve small-scale oceanic processes, such as oceanic eddies,” continues Behrens. “The oceans
around New Zealand are full of these eddies.” Oceanic currents in the real world don’t flow smoothly, like in a Pixar
Disney animation. They’re more like rivers with sections of wild rapids, which create small-scale eddies. “There’s a
hotspot of eddies along the Australian coast – within the East Australian Current,” Behrens explains. “South of about
Sydney, this current becomes unstable and generates very intense eddies. Some of these eddies form the Tasman Front,
which carries warm water towards New Zealand, while others transport water into the Tasman Sea. Small-scale eddies
dominate the transport of heat throughout the ocean, and drive mixing in the ocean (including of nutrient supplies).
Both ocean heat and ocean biology play a major role in climate and climate change.
Behrens, Morgenstern and others have been able to “tweak” the ocean model component of the NZ’s earth system model. The
results show improved simulations of New Zealand’s present-day ocean temperatures, salinity and currents, and therefore
of our ocean bio-geochemistry. Our New Zealand earth system model (NZESM), which scaffolds off the UKESM, also does a
better job of simulating oceanic climate extremes, such as marine heatwaves.
Last year (2019) saw marine heatwaves of 6°C above average. The UKESM underestimated these heatwaves by a massive 1°C.
In general, it simulates milder extremes and colder oceans around New Zealand than we have in the real world.
Small-scale eddies also influence large-scale ocean processes, such as the Super-Gyre Circulation and the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current. These large ocean currents transfer heat to the air, impacting our Southern Hemisphere climate.
We clearly need to be able to accurately model how these processes are changing over time, in order to prepare for our
climate future. With the NZESM capturing present-day conditions around New Zealand better than our UK counterpart, we
can have more confidence in our future predictions.
Further, our number 8 wire attitude has meant we can carry out this kind of modelling for a fraction of the cost of
“New Zealand does not have the computational resources for such global high-resolution simulations, so we’ve had to do
something smart,” says Morgenstern, co-author of the study. “We now have a model which performs as well as or better
than other world-class models, but which is 30 times computational cheaper. This allows us to run many simulations and
scenarios, and to serve a large range of scientific applications. Data from the NZESM is of high interest to New Zealand
researchers, who are studying the impacts of climate change on New Zealand’s environment.”
The results of this study have been published in the Journal of Advances in Earth System Modelling, as “Local Grid Refinement in New Zealand’s Earth System Model: Tasman Sea Ocean Circulation Improvements and
Super-Gyre Circulation Implications”: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019MS001996
Data from the NZESM can be obtained from the Deep South Challenge (see contacts below), or via the Coupled Model
Intercomparison Project (CMIP 6) https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip6/