Indian SSB Chase Nepali Families From Their Homeland
PRINCESS SHRESTHA writes from Kathmandu
Exactly one and half months ago Indian Sima Sasastra Bal (SSB) or Border Special Force begun chasing the Nepali families
from Triveni Susta Village saying the territory lies under the jurisdiction of Indian State of Bihar. About 1000 Indian
farmers, who had entered Susta with the help of Indian forces, not only destroyed sugarcane planted in about 10 hectares
land by Nepali farmers, but also manhandled men and women. This has showed the clear Indian interest to displace about
350 Nepali people from their homeland.
Nepali farmers didn't keep quiet this time. They formed a Committee for Save Susta Campaign in coordination of Gopal
Prasad Gurung, and reached Kathmandu in order to appeal the government to intervene immediately for start fixing the
border pillars. The team met with the Home Minister Dan Bahadur Shahi and requested him to begin talks with Indian
government for border demarcation. The villagers also requested the Home Minister to deploy security forces in Susta for
safety and security of Nepalis living there. Surprisingly, the minister did nothing, but only said that the forces were
focused on fighting against Maoist rebels. The Royal government, which is more concerned in convincing international
community including India about its current position, is still quiet while Nepali farmers face harassment by Indian
farmers and SSB personnel.
However, human rights defenders, researchers, border specialists and historians couldn't keep quiet. They visited Susta
village to inspect the problems last week. The situation they describe is horrific, created by a "big brother" of South
Asia. Nurjaha Begum broke down when the team led by Chetandra Jung Himali of Civic Committee for Border Concerns
listened to what Susta dwellers' have been going through. Nurjaha told the team: "Indians beat Nepali men; and women are
beaten up too, particularly they hit on sensitive parts of women. Indian forces accuse us that we have relations with
the King and Maoists; they harass us stating that we smuggle tiger skin, which is not true."
The seven-member inspection team found the Indians to have encroached further into about 200 hectares Nepali land.
Indian farmers were found building houses in those area, and SSB of about 1000 strength were stationed there. "Now the
total Nepali land that India has grabbed in Susta alone has reached about 14,000 hectares," says Buddhi Narayan
Shrestha, a noted border specialist and historian in Nepal. The Indians have been encroaching into Nepali land in Susta
on several phases in the past.
Nepal-India border dispute isn't limited to Susta
From Tribenighat to Susta, where Narayani River flows from north to south, it forms the borderline along 24 kilometers
between Nepal and India. No pillar demarcation was made on either side of the river though "boundary delimitation and
delineation" was done a way back after Nepal and India signed Sugauli Treaty in 1816. This has created room for border
Internationally Fixed Boundary Principle and Fluid Boundary Principle are in practice for border demarcation. In
Nepal-India's case, the 9th meeting of the Joint Technical Level Boundary Committee of the two countries in first week
of January 1988 had agreed to demarcate the riverine sector on the basis of Fixed Boundary Principle. According to this
principle, says the border specialist, Shrestha, "the borderline should be fixed along the course followed by the
Narayani River in 1816 no matter whether or not the river flows along that area today." India does not accept this
principle in Susta, while it has created disputes in Mechi River area in eastern Nepal by erecting new border pillars
inside Nepali territory as per the Fixed Boundary Principle. The two cases of Mechi River area and Narayani River area
are exactly same in nature but India has imposed two different principles for them.
To stop encroachment a police post was established in Susta. The government also built a health post and school in order
to maintain Nepal's territorial integrity but time and again stories of confrontation of Nepali and Indian farmers have
been coming to light. Also the locals narrate cases of Indian farmers trying to get Nepali citizenship by means of fraud
and forgery in order to own those areas. However, Susta is not the sole case, as Nepal shares 1800 plus kilometer land
border with India, border disputes exist at least at 85 different places. Boundary pillars at dozens of points have
disappeared; the 10-yard wide strip of no man's land between the two countries is getting blurred day by day and in
addition 372 square kilometers of the Nepali territory of Kalipani at the tri-junction of Nepal, India and China has
been occupied by Indian troops since 1960s.
On one hand, in a map prepared with assistance of the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 1992 and
another map prepared with the help of Canadian government in 1985 show whole Susta area in Nepal's side. On the other
hand, the actual scientific demarcation of Nepal-India boundary had started during topographical survey of the whole of
Nepal carried out by the Survey of India in 1926-27. But India has been delaying to make all the topographical maps
available. For instance, it has not made available 17 sheets of which 12 sheets pertain to Nepal-India border area that
of the Kalapani, and 5 sheets pertaining to the Nepal-China border. Several attempts have been made at the national
level to resolve the Susta issue but nothing has happened due to Indian negative attitude. Indian bureaucrats always
suspect of ploy being hatched by Beijing or Islamabad as and when Nepal brings any agenda for discussion. Early this
month the Nepal-India Joint Technical Level Boundary Team met in order to resolve border disputes, but like many other
previous meetings, it ended inconclusive.
What does Nepali Civil Society say?
Nepal is a sovereign country and the government should take immediate action against Indian encroachment. "In fact the
issue should be internationalized as India, claiming itself a representative of South Asia, is seeking a permanent seat
in United Nations Security Council," says Gopal Siwakoti Chintan, a human rights defender. He questioned, "Would India's
hegemonic nature towards smaller countries in the region qualify it to achieve the permanent seat in Security Council?
The government should raise this question while dealing with India, which needs smaller countries' vote in UN
Other members of Nepali civil society say that only a political commitment in both countries may resolve the border
problems. However, what is happening in Susta tells a different political scenario. Bihar State of India, which shares
border with Nepal in South, is holding elections of its State Assembly in January next year; thus Indian politicians are
influencing voters by distributing disputed land of Susta to Indian farmers. It may also be mentioned that Sima Sasastra
Bal (SSB) have told Nepali families that they would be provided the land ownership certificate from India if they said
that the territory belonged to India.
"1000 Indian farmers have entered in Susta, it is not only encroachment in our land, but also an encroachment in our
nationality," said Ram Chandra Chataut, an activist. Adds the border specialist, Shrestha, "Historical documents should
be collected in order to begin border demarcation immediately. If remained quite, those Nepalis living in frontier
should become foreigners in future."
Civic Committee for Border Concerns is launching programs under Save Susta Campaign both in Nepal and India. Border
specialist, Shrestha, historian Dr Surendra KC, human rights defender, Chintan and others are seeking an audience with
King Gyanendra to request him to intervene immediately for resolving Susta border dispute, and ending harassment faced
by Nepali farmers. They will also submit a memorandum to Indian government through its embassy in Kathmandu. They will
meet Chief of the Army Staff of the Royal Nepalese Army to ensure security of Nepali people living along border areas.
The Committee will make a documentary on reality of Susta, and organize interactions in New Delhi in order to aware
concerned Indian citizens.
"India is using its media to misinform even Indian citizens. Recently, an Indian TV spread false story about my book,
which was published seven years ago and tells the reality of Nepal-India border issues. Thus, we should not keep quite,"
says Fanindra Nepal, a researcher.