Council Seeks Incentives for Energy Efficiency

Published: Wed 16 Nov 2005 10:14 AM
Tuesday 15th November 2005
Media Release
Business Council Seeks Incentives for Fuel Efficient/Low Emission Vehicles to Help Clean our Air and Increase Energy Efficiency
To a fanfare and parade of “green” vehicles in Aotea Square led by the Mayor of Auckland City Dick Hubbard and business leaders, the New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development (the Business Council) will today release a report calling for cash incentives to encourage and enable private motorists and businesses to purchase more fuel efficient/low emission passenger vehicles. The proposal addresses the related issues of vehicle emissions, air quality (CO,NOx,soot) and fuel efficiency (CO2).
As most cars first registered in New Zealand each year are used imports, the report recommends action that addresses both new cars and used imports. This includes introducing a higher emissions standard based on the Euro IV standards and incentives to purchase used imports that are seven or less years old.
The Report entitled “Incentivising Greener Vehicles” asks Government to consider;
 amending the New Zealand Emissions Rule so that new petrol vehicles must meet Euro IV, ADR 79/02 or Japan 02/04 emissions standards by 2008 for new models and by 2010 for existing models, and new diesel vehicles must meet Euro V, ADR 80/02 or Japan JE05 international emissions standards by 2010 for new models and by 2011 for existing models.
 paying purchasers of new vehicles at the point of first registration a grant of $3,000 for vehicles with fuel economy of 6.5 litres/100 kilometres or better with a smaller grant of $1,500 for vehicles achieving between 6.6 and 8.5L/100km;
 charging a penalty of $2,000 on first registration for passenger vehicles with fuel efficiency worse than 12L/100km;
 for used imports paying a rebate on first registration of $1,000 for vehicles with fuel economy of 6.5L/100km or better, or $500 for vehicles with fuel economy of between 6.6 and 8.5L/km provided the vehicle is seven years old or less at the time of New Zealand registration;
 for used imports with fuel economy worse than 12L/100km charging a penalty of $1,000 at first New Zealand registration. (These are the categories for petrol vehicles an equivalent classification is also recommended for diesel vehicles);
 promoting replacing central and local government vehicles with fuel efficient/low emission vehicles where fit for purpose options exist;
 allowing the most fuel efficient/low emission vehicles with identifying markings to use bus only lanes;
 the Prime Minister writing to the CEO’s of the top 200 companies and the Heads of Government agencies asking them to consider adding fuel efficient/low emission vehicles to their fleets and putting fuel efficient/low emission vehicles on their recommended lists for staff vehicles.
 Cabinet Ministers taking a lead by selecting fuel efficient/low emission vehicles when they next select a self drive car; and
 developing a web based database of objective information on the fuel efficiency, emissions and safety of new and used import vehicles based on the existing energy star standard that can help consumers make informed choices.
The Chief Executive of the Business Council, Peter Neilson said recent higher petrol prices have helped push sales for smaller and more fuel efficient vehicles but for many individuals and businesses the additional purchase cost of these vehicles, particularly the hybrids, over standard vehicles have stopped them from making the move.
“Government reports show a high rate of premature deaths and illness in New Zealand due to the effects of vehicle pollution, and several cities fail to meet air quality standards on several days of the year. In addition, the Government has called for far greater energy efficiency, which a low emission/energy efficient vehicle fleet can help achieve relatively quickly.
“This is not a case of benefiting the well-off and penalising owners of big cars. The Business Council wants to maximise energy efficiency, lower emissions and enable people to buy safer vehicles. A more fuel-efficient fleet of vehicles of various types and sizes is an effective way of achieving that over time. A big car does not have to be gas guzzler. SUVs like the Ford Escape hybrid and the Toyota Highlander hybrid have fuel economy superior to most of the standard, medium sized vehicles on our roads today.
“The proposed policy changes would also help companies address the car status issue by providing funds which could be passed on as cash up-front payments to encourage company car holders to change to a more fuel efficient vehicle. This would be a win-win with companies getting the benefit of paying less and the individual getting a bonus for making the shift,” Mr Neilson said.
In its recent reports on Sustainable Energy for New Zealand by 2050 and on Climate Change the Business Council has pointed to the transport sector as showing the most promise for early action to reduce emissions.
Mr Neilson said although New Zealand enjoyed one of the highest ratios of car ownership to population in the world, this unfortunately came from having one of the oldest car fleets in the western world.
“The typical car we drive here is now much less fuel efficient, more polluting and less safe than the current models being produced in Japan or Europe. Engine technology has improved considerably over the past decade. Newer cars manufactured in Japan and Europe produce only a tiny proportion of the pollutants a similar vehicle once did. Some smaller petrol vehicles, some diesel vehicles and the petrol/electric hybrid vehicles not only have fewer emissions(CO2, NOx and sulphur) but they also use less than half the petrol or diesel per 100 kilometres than the cars of a decade ago.
“The Business Council proposes that the first time owner of both new and used import vehicles be given cash grants to encourage a move to more fuel efficient/low emission vehicles .
“For the most fuel efficient vehicles the Business Council is recommending a grant of up to $3,000 with a lesser grant of $1000 for used imports, seven years old or less. These grants are around 10% of a new or second hand qualifying vehicle price and are necessary because fuel efficient/low emission vehicles are more expensive than standard vehicles. While the higher fuel efficiency compensates in part for the difference our research shows that petrol prices would need to reach $4 a litre to eliminate the difference for a new car purchaser.
If 40% of new registrations are in the preferred categories, we estimate the cost to Government of introducing the incentives policy would be $97 million a year if the Government adopted the incentives and penalties approach. To the degree to which the take up of more fuel efficient/lower emission vehicles improves there will also be savings from lower greenhouse gas emissions and from lower fuel bills but as a result less motor fuel duty going to the Government.
“We need incentives to kick start a move to more fuel efficient/low emission vehicles. Many of our members have purchased a few fuel efficient/low emission vehicles but at current costs it is hard to justify such vehicles unless they will do very high mileage. We would also encourage more manufacturers to add fuel efficient/low emission vehicles to their offerings in New Zealand so that a “green model” will be available for all ranges. Toyota has announced plans overseas to offer a hybrid version of all its major models by 2010.
Consumers often assume wrongly that driving a more fuel efficient/ lower emission vehicles means less performance. Perceptions of less convenience also impact on vehicle choices.”
“Since driving a petrol electric Honda Civic hybrid I have spoken to many people at petrol stations about the vehicle. The most common question I am asked is how long do you have to charge it each night? A petrol electric hybrid never requires charging. The car combines a standard petrol engine with a battery and electric motor. When you brake or slow down the excess power is used to charge the battery. At full speed you use both the petrol and the electric motor,” Mr Neilson said.
He said using our energy smarter is the key to getting less pollutants and emissions into the atmosphere.
“To help nudge more people toward a more fuel efficient/lower emission vehicle option the Business Council is proposing a registration charge of $2,000 for a new vehicle and $1,000 for a new used import that has a fuel efficiency rating greater than 12L/100km. This would help pay for the incentives to buy more fuel efficient/lower emission vehicles. The Government coalition parties may not want to do this. We have suggested that the incentives would phase out once 40% of first time registrations are in the preferred categories. By that stage the price differential for fuel efficient/low emission vehicles will start to reduce as these vehicles become the standard vehicle.”
1 January 2008 was chosen as the starting point for the new emission standard because that is when Australia will adopt the Euro IV standard for all new models (2010 for existing models). Japan, where New Zealand sources 95% of its used imports, adopted a Euro IV equivalent standard for new models in 2000. By 2008 several years of fuel efficient/low emission vehicles will be available to be imported into New Zealand, so the impact on used import prices, supported by the incentives should not preclude most New Zealanders from owning such vehicles.
By the time a used car is imported it usually has 12-13 years more life left. A New Zealand new car has about 20 years life on first purchase so the more “green” the new car fleet, mainly bought by large business organisations becomes, the more such vehicles will be available in the ex lease market for private motorists and other businesses to purchase. If high mileage vehicles such as taxis or hire cars began moving to the fuel efficient/low emission vehicle options then, combined with a similar move by private motorists, we could soon see improved air quality and some real progress on meeting our climate change objectives”.
Mr Neilson said he expected the proposed policy would improve air quality over time by reducing particulates and CO2 in the atmosphere, which would benefit health and general well being. .
The report is being sent to the Government for consideration.
The Business Council’s starting position is that a business needs to be profitable in order to be sustainable. Sustainable business also needs to be sensitive to the needs of their employees and to the communities in which they operate and to minimise their impact on natural resources. Business Council’s 50 members jointly employ 55,000 people engaged in managing resources, manufacturing, retailing and the service sector. Our members contribute sales of $33 billion to the economy which is equivalent to 28% of GDP.
Notes to Editors
Project Inclusions & Exclusions
• The proposal is aimed at passenger vehicles and four-wheel drives (Vehicle classes MA & MC).
• Excluded from the project scope are ‘people movers’, mini buses, vans and mopeds.
• Renewable fuels were also excluded from the project scope, not due to a lack of support for the idea but the complexity of the topic.
Project Initiation
• This project was initiated by a Business Council member Rob Donze, with the initial emphasis placed on the reduction of FBT rates for low emission, fuel efficient vehicles but moved to consider cash grants and penalties once the administrative complexity of delivering the incentives by way of the Fringe Benefit Tax system were understood.
• Economic incentives were considered required as the cost difference between fuel efficient/low emission and standard vehicles is not off-set by current fuel prices (break-even point for hybrid vehicles to be comparably priced with standard vehicles is estimated at petrol prices of around $4/litre – based on 4yr Net Present Value worksheet )
• The wider value of the project was that an increase of low emission vehicles in the business fleet sector would result in the following:
– Ex-business low emission vehicles would filter down to smaller businesses & the public as they are replaced every 2-5 yrs, reducing the emission profile of the overall NZ fleet for the life of those vehicles (say, another 20 yrs);
– The conversion to low emission vehicles would not require major lifestyle changes, & would reduce fuel use & associated running costs;
– The buying power of businesses & government may place pressure on vehicle suppliers to introduce more hybrids or other technology based solutions.
Background - NZ Fleet Characteristics
• The NZ fleet is unique in that we are a technology taker rather than a producer and the fleet is characterised by large numbers of used imports (over 90% imported from Japan) and older vehicles.
• NZ has one of the highest rates of car ownership in the world, with a total of 2.6 million passenger vehicles (including 231,877 business vehicles) & 578 vehicles/1000 people. This compares with vehicle rates per 1000 people of 481 in the USA, 413 in Japan and 493 people in Australia.
• The average age of the NZ passenger fleet is 11.7yrs, compared with 6.3yrs in the UK & 10.1yrs in Australia.
• In 2004, 228,797 passenger vehicles were first registered in New Zealand, 74,755 (32%) being NZ new vehicles and 154,042 (68%) being used imports. Of those vehicles, 93,772 were registered by businesses.
Background - Current Barriers
• NZBCSD surveyed sales staff from Honda, Toyota, Clean Green Vehicle Co., Honda Lease and Leaseplan to identify barriers to the uptake of ‘green’ vehicles.
• The most common reasons given for not buying or leasing low emission vehicles were:
– a lack of environmental consideration within the decision making process;
– higher capital costs for low emission vehicles (be it perceived or actual); and
– the perception that low emission vehicles offer a limited selection and are less powerful than standard vehicles.
Proposal Scope
• NZBCSD proposed incentives would apply to all vehicle purchasers. This is considered necessary:
– To bring about more significant improvements to the NZ fleet, &
– To benefit the wider group, including the general public, charities, local and central government as well as business.
• Due to the large number of used imports within the NZ fleet, incentives have been proposed for both:
– NZ new vehicles, &
– Used imports (over 90% of used imports are from Japan).
Objectives of Proposal
• Following discussions with the project team, the objectives were expanded to incentivise vehicles that were both low emission and more fuel efficient.
– Lower emissions would improve air quality; and
– Improved fuel efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions (of increasing importance to Government to meet climate change targets).
• In effect, this created a ‘two – tick’ criteria, based on both performance & economy that would need to be met in order in order to be eligible for the incentives.
– Regulations are the most appropriate means to bring about lower vehicle emission (correlating with Australian standards to prevent trade barriers. Australia moves to Euro IV in 2008 for new models and 2010 for existing models).
– Economic incentives are the most effective means to encourage the purchase of improved fuel economy vehicles.
Proposed Policy Change
The economic incentives proposed for new vehicles should be supported by a policy change that requires those vehicles to meet more stringent emissions standards than those currently referred to within the New Zealand Emissions Rule. In line with the intended timing for the Australian motor vehicle industry, the Business Council proposes that New Zealand new vehicles should be required to achieve the following:
- Petrol vehicles must meet Euro IV, ADR 79/02 or Japan 02/04 emissions standards by 2008 for new models and by 2010 for existing models.
- Diesel vehicles must meet Euro V, ADR 80/02 or Japan JE05 international emissions standards by 2010 for new models and by 2011 for existing models.
Proposed Economic Incentives
• The economic incentives proposed by NZBCSD are in the form of a cash grant.
• The value of the incentives is intended to reduce the cost differential between fuel efficient, low emission vehicle and standard vehicles (based on 4yr Net Present Value worksheet comparing hybrid vehicles with common business fleet and private vehicles).
• Economic incentives would need sunset clauses to be provided, e.g. incentives provided until 40% of the new registration meet the proposed criteria (for emission and fuel economy ratings).
Economic Incentives – NZ New Vehicles
1. Cash Grant
• Petrol Vehicles:
– $3,000 grant for vehicles achieving 6.5 L/100km or less
– $1,500 grant for vehicles achieving between 6.6 and 8.5 L/100km
– Penalty of $2,000 for vehicles with worse than 12 L/100km.
• Diesel Vehicles
– $3,000 rebate for vehicles achieving 6.0 L/100km or less
– $1,500 rebate for vehicles achieving between 6.1 and 7.9 L/100km
– Penalty of $2,000 for vehicles with worse than 11.1 L/100km.
- Grant to be paid to vehicle purchaser, at time of first registration.
- Penalty to be paid to Government by vehicle purchaser, at time of first registration.
- $3,000 grant would approx. half price difference between standard vehicle & hybrid equivalent.
- $1,500 grant considered to be affordable and a sufficient incentive to encourage the selection of a more fuel efficient vehicle.
Economic Incentives – Used Import
1. Cash Grant
• Petrol Vehicles:
– $1,000 grant for vehicles achieving 6.5 L/100km or less
– $500 grant for vehicles achieving between 6.6 and 8.5 L/100km
– Penalty of $1,000 for vehicles with worse than 12 L/100km.
• Diesel Vehicles
– $1,000 grant for vehicles achieving 6.0 L/100km or less
– $500 grant for vehicles achieving between 6.1 and 7.9 L/100km
– Penalty of $1,000 for vehicles with worse than 11.1 L/100km.
Grant to be paid to vehicle purchaser, at time of first registration of vehicle.
- Penalty to be paid to Government by vehicle purchaser, at time of first registration of vehicle.
- $1,000 rebate based on assumption that capital cost of average used import approx. 1/3 of average NZ new vehicle.
- $500 rebate factored by the same amount as for NZ new vehicles, intended to encourage the selection of a more fuel efficient vehicle.
Other Recommendations
• Reduce max. sulphur content to 10 ppm in diesel by Jan 2009 & 50 ppm in petrol by Jan 2008, with future commitment to 10 ppm sulphur in petrol by Jan 2009. This policy change is required to obtain the best benefits from low emission vehicles, as e.g. Euro IV vehicles are designed to run on petrol with 50 ppm sulphur content.
• Establish NZ vehicle website database for fuel economy ratings for new & used vehicles (emission ratings not required if NZ Emissions Rule to Euro IV in next 3yrs). Ratings information would be provided by manufacturers or importers, and appropriately certified by either the parent company in the case of new cars or from the deregistration certificate from the country of origin in the case of used imports.
• Replace central and local Government fleet vehicles with fuel efficient & low emission vehicles (where fit for purpose options available).
• PM to write to top 200 NZ companies & Government departments requesting them to support efforts for improved air quality & reduced CO2 by adding at least 1 low emission, fuel efficient vehicle to their fleet & putting such vehicles on a recommended vehicle list.
• Consider allowing fuel efficient, low emission vehicles to use bus lanes. NB: low emission requirement (e.g. Euro IV) would be set by legislation, therefore as with the economic incentives the eligibility test would be simplified to certification that the fuel economy requirement is met (6.5 L/100km for petrol vehicles or 6.0 L/100km for diesel)
• Ask Cabinet Ministers to select a fuel efficient/low emission option when they next select a self drive vehicle.
Examples of Eligible Vehicles
(list derived from the Green Vehicle & Fuel Consumption Guides, Australian Greenhouse Office)
• Vehicles eligible for $3,000 or $1,000 incentive (NZ new & used imports, respectively):
– Audi A4 (2L) Diesel - Honda Jazz (1.5L) Petrol
– Daihatsu Sirion (1.3L) Petrol - Peugeot 307 (2L) Diesel
– Holden Barina (1.4L) Petrol - Toyota Prius (1.5L) Hybrid
– Honda Civic (1.3L) Hybrid
• Vehicles eligible for $1,500 or $500 incentive (NZ new & used imports, respectively):
– Citroen C5 (2.2L) Diesel - Kia Rio (1.5L) Petrol
– Daewoo Lacetti (1.8L) Petrol - Mazda 2 (1.5L) Petrol
– Ford Focus (2L) Petrol - Nissan Pulsar (1.8L) Petrol
– Holden Astra (1.8L) Petrol - Peugeot 407 (2L) Diesel
– Hyundai Sonata (2.4L) Petrol - Toyota Corolla (1.8L) Petrol
• Vehicles with $2,000 or $1,000 penalty applied (NZ new & used imports, respectively):
– Ford Falcon XR8 (5.4L) Petrol - Mazda RX8 (2.6L) Petrol
– Holden Commodore Executive (3.6L) Petrol - Subaru Legacy (3L) Petrol
– Toyota Hilux (4L) Petrol
Recommended Policy Changes – Used Imports
Policy change required to support economic incentives for low emission, fuel efficient used imports that are no more than 7 yrs of age at time of first registration in NZ:
– Provide grants for low emission fuel efficient imports ‘no more than 7yrs of age’ approach is based on the understanding that vehicles produced for the internal Japanese market were required to meet a standard ~ Euro IV from Yr 2000 onwards,
– Introducing the policy for Euro IV (or equivalent / better) used imports in 2008 would:
• align with the timing for NZ New vehicles being required to meet Euro IV;
• allow for a larger supply of eligible vehicles (if Japanese vehicles sold to NZ market when 5 yrs old, by 2008 there would be 3yrs worth of eligible vehicles).
– To allow for exceptions, (e.g. importation of a vintage car or special purpose vehicle or less fuel efficient vehicles) could still import vehicle but would pay penalty of $2,000. Penalty fee could be used to subsidise other low emission, fuel efficient models. Re-exported cars would be refunded the penalty fee once the vehicle leaves NZ Or be exempted if the vehicle would be in New Zealand for less than a year(e.g. rally cars or vehicles imported for restoration).
International Examples of Economic Incentives for Vehicles
• Overseas examples researched in early stages of NZBCSD project.
• Economic incentives include:
– cash grants - e.g. UK - £700 for LPG / hybrid vehicles and £1,500 for electric vehicles;
– tax concessions - e.g. Colorado, Utah & Oklahoma offer income tax credits for hybrids & a number of U.S. states offer partial tax exemptions for businesses tax and state sales tax (in the US incentives apply to converted and new vehicles) and hybrid vehicles exempt from London congestion tax;
– reduced registration costs for higher fuel economy vehicles (some Australian and US states);
– Free parking for ‘clean-fuel’ vehicles, San Jose, California
• Other incentives / directives include:
– unrestricted use of carpool/bus lanes regardless of occupancy -e.g. Arizona, Florida, Georgia);
– requirements for government organisations to improve their own fleets – e.g. by 31/12/05 Californian state offices, agencies and departments required to replace non-essential sport utility vehicles and 4WD trucks with more fuel efficient vehicles
Why Do We Need Incentives?
• Petrol price increase / carbon tax will not shift demand until petrol is $4 a litre.
• First owner’s decision to purchase has an impact over the next 20 year/life of the vehicle.
• Most potential owners are unaware that they could select a more fuel efficient/lower emission vehicle without any reduction in driving convenience, comfort or performance.
• The aim should be to get a tipping point where high fuel economy/fuel efficient vehicle are considered mainstream – i.e. 40% of all new registrations.
• A growing market for low emission vehicles will bring lower costs and incentives for each brand to import and sell fuel efficient/low emission vehicles in their range (e.g. Toyota are reported internationally as planning to introduce a hybrid option in each of their major models by 2010)
Recommended Policy Changes – NZ New
Date of manufacture Current NZ vehicle emissions standard (new, light vehicles)
Petrol Diesel
From 1 Jan 2005 to 31 Dec 2005 ADR 79/00; Euro II; US 2001; or Japan 00/02 ADR 79/00 & ADR 30/01; Euro II;
US 2001; or Japan 02/04
From 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2006 ADR 79/01; Euro III; US 2001; or Japan 00/02 ADR 79/00 & ADR 30/01; Euro II;
US 2001; or Japan 02/04
On or after 1 Jan 2007 ADR 79/01; Euro III; US 2001; or Japan 00/02 ADR 79/01 & ADR 30/01; Euro IV;
US 2004; or Japan 02/04
Date of manufacture Business Council Recommendations (new, light vehicles)
From 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2006 ADR 79/01; Euro III; US 2001; or Japan 00/02 ADR 79/00 & ADR 30/01; Euro II;
US 2001; or Japan 02/04
From 1 Jan 2007 to 31 Dec 2007 ADR 79/01; Euro III; US 2001; or Japan 00/02
ADR 79/01 & ADR 30/01; Euro IV;
US 2004; or Japan 02/04
From 1 Jan 2008 to 31 Dec 2009 ADR 79/02, Euro IV, or Japan 02/04 for new models
From 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2010
ADR 79/02, Euro IV, or Japan 02/04 for new models & models in existence in 2005 ADR 80/02, Euro V, or Japan JE05 for new models
On or after 1 Jan 2011 ADR 80/02, Euro V, or Japan JE05 for new models & models in existence in 2005
What is the fuel economy of a typical new and used top selling car NZ?
Rank Top selling make and models in the month of October 2005 for New Zealand Fuel Economy
litres per 100km
Fuel efficiency ratings have been taken from the Australian Green Vehicle Guide.
1 Toyota Corolla
734 registrations
8.5 L/100km
2 Holden Commodore Acclaim
494 registrations
11.1 L/100Km
3 Ford Mondeo
322 registrations 9.5 L/100km
4 Daihatsu Sirion
276 registrations 5.8 L/100km
5 Mitsubishi ‘380’
275 registrations 10.8 L/100km
Rank Top selling make and models of used imported cars by cc rating category in 2004 for New Zealand
Fuel Economy
litres per 100km
Fuel efficiency ratings have been taken from the Australian Green Vehicle Guide.
1 Subaru Legacy
8601 11.4 L/100km
2 Honda Odyssey
5167 9.4 L/100km
3 Nissan Pulsar
4842 7.2 L/100km
4 Toyota Rav4
4801 9.3 L/100km
5 Nissan Primera
3979 7.2 L/100km
NOTE: While the information above does provide a reliable comparison of the fuel consumption of different vehicles, different results do depend on which guide you use, driving conditions and the condition of the vehicle. The Australian Government’s Fuel Consumption Guide Database 1986-2003 is the guide used in the Incentivising Greener Fleet Vehicles Project for the NPV assessment.
In US - top selling passenger car for 2006 is the Toyota Camry.
In Australia in September 2005, the Toyota Corolla displaced the Holden Commodore as Australia's top-selling car as big cars struggled in a market spooked by rising petrol prices.
Rank Top make and models of the most fuel efficient cars in United States for 2006
Fuel Economy
litres per 100km
Fuel efficiency ratings have been taken from the Australian Green Vehicle Guide
1 Honda Insight (hybrid) 3.9 L/100km
2 Toyota Prius (hybrid) 4.4 L/100km
3 Volkswagen Golf (diesel, automatic) 5.8 L/100km
4 Volkswagen New Beetle and Golf (diesel, manual) 6.1 L/100km
5 Volkswagen Jetta (diesel) 6.5 L/100km
6 Ford Escape Hybrid FWD 6.5 L/100km
7 Ford Escape Hybrid 4WD (Also Mazda Tribute and Mercury Mariner 4WD hybrids) 7.1 L/100km
8 Lexus RX 400h 2WD and Toyota Highlander Hybrid 2WD 7.1 L/100km
9 Toyota Corolla (manual) 7.4 L/100km
10 Volkswagen New Beetle and Jetta(diesel, automatic) 7.7 L/100km
Source: Source: CNN “Most fuel-efficient cars for 2006, Hybrids and diesels tops in EPA's new Fuel Economy Guide. Ford Escape Hybrid top SUV. October 13, 2005; Posted: 11:13 a.m. EDT (1513 GMT)”
Top 5 Commercial Vehicle Sales in NZ for 2005 (Jan-Oct):
Rank Make Sales
1 Toyota 5085
2 Ford 3958
3 Holden 3392
4 Mitsubishi 2337
5 Nissan 1637
Top 5 Passenger Car Sales in NZ for 2005 (Jan-Oct):
Rank Make Sales
1 Toyota 10252
2 Ford 9827
3 Holden 8605
4 Honda 5205
5 Mitsubishi 4764

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